Several publications related to the measurement of SGM populations are highlighted below. These resources are designed to be a starting point for those interested in learning more about studies related to SGM measurement and research methods. This is not an exhaustive list; the SGMRO encourages submission of relevant measurement-related research articles to be considered for inclusion on this website.

Publications Related to SOGI Measurement & Data

Measurement of gender and sexuality in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study2024
Comparison of Methods to Assess Adolescent Gender Identity in the ABCD Study2024
Asking sexual orientation and gender identity on health surveys: Findings from cognitive interviews in the United States across sexual orientations and genders2023
Who Gets Counted and How2023

Do Ask, Tell, and Show: Contextual Factors Affecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Disclosure for Sexual and Gender Minority People


Preliminary factor structure of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Parents (PAGES-P)

Organizational Strategies and Inclusive Language to Build Culturally Responsive Health Care Environments for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer People2021
Variation in Sexual Orientation Documentation in a National Electronic Health Record System2021
Collection of Data on Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity by U.S. Public Health Data and Monitoring Systems, 2015–20182021

Acceptability and Feasibility of Collecting Sexual Orientation and Expanded Gender Identity Data in Urology and Oncology Clinics

Gender harmony: improved standards to support affirmative care of gender-marginalized people through inclusive gender and sex representation2021
USPSTF Approach to Addressing Sex and Gender When Making Recommendations for Clinical Preventive Services2021
What Sexual and Gender Minority People Want Researchers to Know About Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions: A Qualitative Study2021
Application of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sampling Weights to Transgender Health Measurement2020
Perspectives from Transgender and Gender Diverse People on How to Ask About Gender2020
Subjective Ratings of Gender Dysphoria Scales by Transgender Individuals2020
Reconsidering Approaches to Estimating Health Disparities Across Multiple Measures of Sexual Orientation2020
The Psychometric Properties of the Competency Assessment Tool for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients2020
What Sexual and Gender Minority People Want Researchers to Know About Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions: A Qualitative Study2020
Advancing Research on LGBTQ Microaggressions: A Psychometric Scoping Review of Measures2019
Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Information at Death2019
Development and Initial Validation of Three Culturally Sensitive Measures of Intimate Partner Violence for Sexual and Gender Minority Populations2019
Face Validity Ratings of Sexual Orientation Scales by Heterosexual Cisgender Adults2019
Measuring LGBTQ Microaggressions: The Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microaggressions Scale (GIMS) 2019
Measuring Minority Stress: Invariance of a Discrimination and Vigilance Scale Across Transgender and Cisgender LGBQ Individuals2019
Methodological Considerations for Advancing Research on the Health and Wellbeing of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth2019
Navigating the Closet: A Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing the Impact of Concealment on Psychological Outcomes for Sexual and Gender Minorities2019
Special Issue on Measuring LGBT Populations in Journal of Official Statistics2019
The development and psychometric evaluation of the Trans Discrimination Scale: TDS-212019
The Transgender Identity Survey: A Measure of Internalized Transphobia2019
A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Composite LGBT Prejudice and Discrimination Scales2018
Comparing substance use and mental health outcomes among sexual minority and heterosexual women in probability and non-probability samples2018
Development of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory2018
Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group2018
Face Validity Ratings of Sexual Orientation Scales by Sexual Minority Adults: Effects of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity2018
For data’s sake: dilemmas in the measurement of gender minorities2018
Identifying and Counting Individuals with Differences of Sex Development Conditions in Population Health Research2018
A Review of Instruments that Measure LGBTQ Affirmation and Discrimination Constructs in Adults2017
Assessing the Feasibility of Asking About Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Current Population Survey: Results From Cognitive Interviews2017
Assessing the Feasibility of Asking About Gender Identity in the Current Population Survey: Results From Focus Groups With Members of the Transgender Population2017
Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory2017
Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group2017
Improving Measurement of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Among Middle and High School Students2017
Improving Measures of Sexual and Gender Identity in English and Spanish to Identify LGBT Older Adults in Surveys2017
Interviewing Adolescents About Sexual Matters2017
Questionnaire development and validity to measure sexual intention among youth in Malaysia2017
The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale: Factor Analytic Evidence and Associations With Health and Well-Being2017
Victimization rates and traits of sexual and gender minorities in the United States: Results from the National Crime Victimization Survey2017
Data Collection Methods for Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity2016
Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults2016
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 20152016
A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Evaluation of the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid2015
Counting Trans* Patients: A Community Health Center Case Study2015
Development of the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure2015
New Categories Are Not Enough: Rethinking the Measurement of Sex and Gender in Social Surveys2015
Best Practices for Asking Questions to Identify Transgender and Other Gender Minority Respondents on Population-Based Surveys2014
Gender Identity and Diversity2014
Improved Measurement of Household Relationships in Federal Surveys2014
Measuring Multiple Minority Stress: The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale2014
Monitoring the health of transgender and other gender minority populations: validity of natal sex and gender identity survey items in a U.S. national cohort of young adults2014
Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors2014
Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 20132014
Sexual Orientation in the 2013 National Health Interview Survey: A Quality Assessment2014
The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults2014
Measurement of sexual identity in surveys: implications for substance abuse research2012
Design, Development and Testing of the NHIS Sexual Identity Question2011
Different patterns of sexual identity development over time: implications for the psychological adjustment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths2011
Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma and Resilience2011
Revision and extension of a multidimensional measure of sexual minority identity: the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale2011
Stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity in young people: application of mobility metrics2011
Best Practices for Asking Questions about Sexual Orientation on Surveys2009
"Everyone has a right to, like, check their box:" findings on a measure of gender identity from a cognitive testing study with adolescents2008
Predicting different patterns of sexual identity development over time among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: a cluster analytic approach2008
Making sense of sexual orientation measures: Findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions2007
Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time2006
Measuring sexual orientation in adolescent health surveys: evaluation of eight school-based surveys2004

Submit Publications for Consideration

Do you have a measurement-related research publication? Submit it to sends e-mail) for review and potential addition to our publication list!

Works Cited from the NASEM Report

A comprehensive list of works cited in the consensus panel report is available to download.

This page last reviewed on