Methods and Measurement in Sexual & Gender Minority Health Research


Several publications related to the measurement of SGM populations are highlighted below. These resources are designed to be a starting point for those interested in learning more about studies related to SGM measurement and research methods. This is not an exhaustive list; the SGMRO encourages submission of relevant measurement-related research articles to be considered for inclusion on this website.

Title Year
Collection of Data on Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity by U.S. Public Health Data and Monitoring Systems, 2015–2018 2021

Acceptability and Feasibility of Collecting Sexual Orientation and Expanded Gender Identity Data in Urology and Oncology Clinics

Gender harmony: improved standards to support affirmative care of gender-marginalized people through inclusive gender and sex representation 2021

USPSTF Approach to Addressing Sex and Gender When Making Recommendations for Clinical Preventive Services

What Sexual and Gender Minority People Want Researchers to Know About Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions: A Qualitative Study 2021
Application of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sampling Weights to Transgender Health Measurement 2020
Perspectives from Transgender and Gender Diverse People on How to Ask About Gender 2020
Subjective Ratings of Gender Dysphoria Scales by Transgender Individuals 2020
Reconsidering Approaches to Estimating Health Disparities Across Multiple Measures of Sexual Orientation 2020
The Psychometric Properties of the Competency Assessment Tool for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients 2020
What Sexual and Gender Minority People Want Researchers to Know About Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions: A Qualitative Study 2020
Advancing Research on LGBTQ Microaggressions: A Psychometric Scoping Review of Measures 2019
Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Information at Death 2019
Development and Initial Validation of Three Culturally Sensitive Measures of Intimate Partner Violence for Sexual and Gender Minority Populations 2019
Face Validity Ratings of Sexual Orientation Scales by Heterosexual Cisgender Adults 2019
Measuring LGBTQ Microaggressions: The Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) and the Gender Identity Microaggressions Scale (GIMS)  2019
Measuring Minority Stress: Invariance of a Discrimination and Vigilance Scale Across Transgender and Cisgender LGBQ Individuals 2019
Methodological Considerations for Advancing Research on the Health and Wellbeing of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth 2019
Navigating the Closet: A Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing the Impact of Concealment on Psychological Outcomes for Sexual and Gender Minorities 2019
Special Issue on Measuring LGBT Populations in Journal of Official Statistics 2019
The development and psychometric evaluation of the Trans Discrimination Scale: TDS-21 2019
The Transgender Identity Survey: A Measure of Internalized Transphobia 2019
A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Composite LGBT Prejudice and Discrimination Scales 2018
Comparing substance use and mental health outcomes among sexual minority and heterosexual women in probability and non-probability samples 2018
Development of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory 2018
Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group 2018
Face Validity Ratings of Sexual Orientation Scales by Sexual Minority Adults: Effects of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 2018
For data’s sake: dilemmas in the measurement of gender minorities 2018
Identifying and Counting Individuals with Differences of Sex Development Conditions in Population Health Research 2018
A Review of Instruments that Measure LGBTQ Affirmation and Discrimination Constructs in Adults 2017
Assessing the Feasibility of Asking About Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Current Population Survey: Results From Cognitive Interviews. 2017
Assessing the Feasibility of Asking About Gender Identity in the Current Population Survey: Results From Focus Groups With Members of the Transgender Population. 2017
Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory 2017
Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group 2017
Improving Measurement of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Among Middle and High School Students 2017
Improving Measures of Sexual and Gender Identity in English and Spanish to Identify LGBT Older Adults in Surveys. 2017
Interviewing Adolescents About Sexual Matters. 2017
Questionnaire development and validity to measure sexual intention among youth in Malaysia. 2017
The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale: Factor Analytic Evidence and Associations With Health and Well-Being 2017
Victimization rates and traits of sexual and gender minorities in the United States: Results from the National Crime Victimization Survey 2017
Data Collection Methods for Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 2016
Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. 2016
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 2015. 2016
A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Evaluation of the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid 2015
Counting Trans* Patients: A Community Health Center Case Study 2015
Development of the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure 2015
New Categories Are Not Enough: Rethinking the Measurement of Sex and Gender in Social Surveys. 2015
Best Practices for Asking Questions to Identify Transgender and Other Gender Minority Respondents on Population-Based Surveys. 2014
Gender Identity and Diversity 2014
Improved Measurement of Household Relationships in Federal Surveys 2014
Measuring Multiple Minority Stress: The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale 2014
Monitoring the health of transgender and other gender minority populations: validity of natal sex and gender identity survey items in a U.S. national cohort of young adults. 2014
Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors. 2014
Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013. 2014
Sexual Orientation in the 2013 National Health Interview Survey: A Quality Assessment. 2014
The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults 2014
Measurement of sexual identity in surveys: implications for substance abuse research. 2012
Design, Development and Testing of the NHIS Sexual Identity Question 2011
Different patterns of sexual identity development over time: implications for the psychological adjustment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. 2011
Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma and Resilience. 2011
Revision and extension of a multidimensional measure of sexual minority identity: the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. 2011
Stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity in young people: application of mobility metrics. 2011
Best Practices for Asking Questions about Sexual Orientation on Surveys. 2009
"Everyone has a right to, like, check their box:" findings on a measure of gender identity from a cognitive testing study with adolescents. 2008
Predicting different patterns of sexual identity development over time among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: a cluster analytic approach. 2008
Making sense of sexual orientation measures: Findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions. 2007
Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: consistency and change over time. 2006
Measuring sexual orientation in adolescent health surveys: evaluation of eight school-based surveys. 2004

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This page last reviewed on November 23, 2021