Conferences, Workshops, and Meetings

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10th Annual Structural Birth Defects Working Group Meeting
These recurring meetings are designed to maintain an interactive special interest working group of investigators who are interested in multidisciplinary approaches to enhancing our understanding of the genetic epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, developmental biology, and genetics of structural birth defects. The research areas covered currently include the study of neural tube and other structural central nervous system defects, cardiac defects, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, limb defects, skeletal dysplasias, osteogenesis imperfecta, congenital contractures, club foot, Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, pituitary defects, cryptorchidism, and craniofacial defects. The meeting provided a forum for investigators to discuss the plans for and progress of their research, exchange ideas and information, share resources, and foster synergistic collaborations relevant to the research goals of the Birth Defects Initiative and Working Group. 

NIH Participants: NICHD, NIDCR, NIDDK, NIEHS, NINDS, OD

Website: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/research/supported/Pages/bdiwg.aspx

19th Annual Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) Meeting
The 19th Annual CFAR Meeting was hosted by the University of Washington/Fred Hutchinson CFAR on November 4-6, 2015. November 4th included a full-day National CFAR Community Advisory Board Coalition Meeting and the HIV and Tuberculosis Co-Infection Inter-CFAR Group Symposium. The National CFAR Scientific Syposium was held on November 5th along with a junior faculty poster presentation session. Several other Inter-CFAR working group meetings occured throughout the week including HIV Research in Women, iCHARM, Cytometry Interest Group, and the CFAR Sub-Saharan Africa Working Group. The Directors' Meeting was held on November 6th. The agenda included opportunities for representatives at each of the 19 CFARs to assemble and exchange information including CFAR principal investigators, CFAR Administrators, and members of the inter-CFAR working groups.

NIH Participants: NIAID, FIC, NCI, NIMH, OAR

Website: http://www.brown.edu/conference/aids-research/home

2016 NHLBI/NIDDK Mitochondrial Biology Symposium: Novel Roles of Mitochondria in Health and Disease
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) co-sponsored the fourth in a series of conferences focusing on mitochondrial biology. This symposium was held on May 19-20, 2016 and built on the success of previous conferences in the series, which focused on mitochondrial biology and its far-reaching impact in medicine, mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial communications, and mitochondrial genetics in health and disease.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NHLBI

Website: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/events/2016-nhlbiniddk-mitochondrial-biology-symposium-novel-roles-mitochondria-health-and

Analysis of Functional Neuroimages (AFNI) Training Workshop
The NIMH Scientific and Statistical Computing Core has developed a 40-hour course on how to design and analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. This course is taught in a five-day hands-on "boot camp." In fiscal year 2016, the AFNI course was taught twice at the NIH with over 200 students in attendance. All materials for this continually evolving course (software, sample data, scripts, and PDF slides) are freely available on the website https://afni.nimh.nih.gov. The course material includes several sample datasets that are used to illustrate the entire process of analyzing the data, starting with image output by MRI scanners, and continuing through to the collective statistical analysis of groups of subjects.

NIH Participants: NIMH, NICHD

Website: https://afni.nimh.nih.gov

Animal Model Development Workshop
The purpose of this workshop (held on September 22-23, 2016) was to bring funders, researchers, developers, regulators, and policy makers together to explore unique challenges presented by the development of animal models for the evaluation of medical counter measures (MCMs) for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threat agents. We will discuss recent progress and approvals under the "Animal Rule", technologies and developments to support the refinement of animal models, conduct of animal studies (compliance and welfare), well-characterized challenge materials, and lessons learned during regulatory submissions. An additional goal of the workshop was to promote the sharing of knowledge and perspectives and forging of relationships that will foster collaborative efforts to identify and address the challenges of developing and utilizing animal models to facilitate MCM development.

NIH Participants: NIAID, NINDS
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA, CDC
Other Participants: BARDA

Website: http://The purpose of this workshop (held on September 22-23, 2016) was to bring funders, researchers, developers, regulators, and policy makers together to explore unique challenges presented by the development of animal models for the evaluation of

Assay Guidance Manual Workshop
The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) Assay Guidance Manual, an eBook developed in coordination with an international editorial board and colleagues at Eli Lilly and Company, is a 32-chapter how-to guide for researchers on developing and using assays in high-throughput screening projects. More than 100 participants attended the "Assay Guidance Workshop for High-Throughput Screening and Lead Discovery" on April 5-6, 2016, in College Park, Maryland. Hosted by NCATS and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the workshop was designed to provide participants with a broad and practical perspective on how to develop and implement robust assays for early-stage drug discovery projects. Participants included researchers from thirteen NIH centers, FDA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Department of Defense, industry and academia. Workshop leaders with more than 20 years of drug discovery experience covered a broad range of critical concepts underlying robust assay development and screening strategies. There were also open discussions for participants to share experiences and seek practical advice about individual research interests.

NIH Participants: NCATS , CC, NCI, NEI, NHGRI, NHLBI, NIAID, NIAMS, NICHD, NIDA, NIDCR, NIDDK, NINDS
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA

Website: https://ncats.nih.gov/enews/issues/vol05-iss04/assay-guidance-workshop

Behavioral Phenotyping of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior
Despite the well-established benefits of regular physical activity for health, well-being, and weight maintenance, less than 5 percent of U.S. adults meet the recommended guidelines for moderately vigorous physical activity. After decades of research and health promotion efforts, there remains considerable room for improvement. Even in research or community interventions that successfully promote physical activity, there is a wide range of individual-level response and often suboptimal maintenance of activity levels. Understanding the individual characteristics and processes that predict and explain activity level, sustained engagement in physical activity, and sedentary behavior may reveal novel targets leading to subsequent individual- and/or population-level interventions. This 1.5-day workshop focused on behavioral and psychological factors that predict or drive human physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to energy expenditure and weight loss/management. The interaction of these factors with other determinants such as biophysiological responses to exercise, sociocultural factors, environmental factors, genetics, and developmental stage was also discussed. The goal of the workshop was to identify the behavioral and/or psychological expressions (phenotypes) of these interactions that meaningfully explain individual variability in physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, as well as response to prevention or treatment. The identification of these phenotypes should improve treatment matching or point toward novel targets for more efficacious individual and population-level approaches for weight management.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NCI, NHLBI

Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/news/events-calendar/Pages/Behavioral-Phenotyping-of-Physical-Activity-and-Sedentary-Behavior.aspx#tab-agenda

Bridging Knowledge Gaps to Understand How Zika Virus (ZIKV) Exposure and Infection Affect Child Development
ZIKV is a growing, global epidemic. ZIKV has been associated with numerous birth and developmental defects, such as microcephaly, and other pregnancy and birth-related problems, including miscarriages, stillbirths, and other in utero complications. Because of these health issues, it is imperative that the scientific community understand the effects of ZIKV on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify optimal approaches for treating and caring for the generation of children exposed to ZIKV in the womb.

NIH Participants: NICHD, FIC, NCI, NHGRI, NIAAA, NIAID, NIDCR, NIEHS, NIGMS, NIMH, NINDS, NINR
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA, CDC, HRSA
Other Participants: ASPR, OS, State, USUHS, USAID, EPA

Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight infants. Through intramural and extramural research programs, the NIH supports and conducts a broad range of research on CP. This portfolio includes research on the causes and mechanisms of CP, associated conditions, impact of prenatal and perinatal support, and rehabilitation and treatment. The NIH is working on a trans-NIH framework for CP research. This workshop brings together experts on CP and related conditions to identify key research gaps, promote interdisciplinary scientific collaboration, and advance current research in the field.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NIDDK, NINDS
Other Participants: Education

Common Data Element (CDE) Repository
Meetings were held to discuss NIH-wide Common Data Elements (CDE) requirements, discuss joint development of repositories for CDEs and Forms based on the Structured Data Capture initiative.

NIH Participants: NCI, NLM

Website: https://cdebrowser.nci.nih.gov

Developing a Comprehensive Therapeutic Research Strategy for the Converging Epidemics of TB, T2DM, and HIV
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), and the Office of AIDS Research co-sponsored a workshop on May 10-11, 2016 on the converging epidemics of tuberculosis, type 2 diabetes, and HIV. The workshop focused on topics including: the current and future impact of these epidemics, critical gaps and key pre-clinical research directions, clinical research to improve management and prevention, and integrated implementation research approaches.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NIAID, OAR

Website: http://tandem-fp7.eu/newsevents/workshop-2016/

Developmental Renal Malformations, Oligo/Anhydramnios: Pathophysiology and Clinical Aspects
Renal malformations associated with lack of fetal urine production or obstruction to fetal urine flow can cause severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios (reduced or absent amniotic fluid). The latter, in-turn, can lead to severe fetal abnormalities. For example, lack of fetal breathing coupled with reduced intrauterine space can lead to the clinical condition called Potter’s sequence (also called Potter’s syndrome), which is associated with neonatal death. However, recent advances in fetal imaging have enabled earlier diagnosis of evolving kidney disorders, and intrauterine fetal surgeries have been carried out. These treatments have resulted in varying degrees of benefits for some, but not all, infants affected by maternal oligo/anhydramnios.  Thus, despite improved knowledge about these conditions, major knowledge gaps exist. This workshop was organized to understand the clinical and basic science issues related to the development of oligo/anhydramnios.  Meeting objectives included describing and understanding 1) the biology of amniotic fluid production/absorption and regulation, 2) the epidemiology of renal malformations in relation to oligo/anhydramnios, 3) how renal development correlates with prenatal renal ultrasound findings, and 4) what fetal/neonatal surgical interventions and other management strategies are available for prenatally identified renal anomalies associated with oligo/anhydramnios.  Another objective of the workshop was developing approaches to evidence-based counseling of prospective parents about expected renal outcomes.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NICHD

Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/news/events-calendar/Pages/developmental-renal-malformations.aspx#tab-event-details

Effects of Aging on Hematopoiesis
Older adults are faced with a significant burden of non-malignant hematologic disease. The etiologies of anemias, clonal hematopoiesis, idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance, and myelodysplastic syndromes are largely unknown, hindering rational diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Also, specific hypotheses concerning normal aging of blood stem cells and their progenitors are poised to be tested. Furthermore, we must develop a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of non-malignant hematologic disease in older adults. This workshop considered the gaps in knowledge and technology that are barriers to the understanding of the basic biology that regulates hematopoiesis in older organisms. The workshop also provided an opportunity for the research community to cooperatively consider the essential next steps for the field. Closing such gaps may establish a foundation critical to improving the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent non-malignant hematologic disease in older adults.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NHLBI, NIA

Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/news/events-calendar/Pages/hematopoiesis2016.aspx#tab-agenda

Etiology and Interventions for Health Disparities Research Workshop
This workshop brought together NIH and external experts to identify priority recommendations to elucidate the causes of health disparities and inform the design and implementation of interventions to reduce health disparities.

NIH Participants: NIMHD, CC, NCATS , NCI, NHLBI, NIAAA, NICHD, NIDDK, OBSSR, ORWH

First Steering Committee Meeting between NCI/NIH and Government of India under the Cancer MoU
The governments of the United States and India signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for broad cooperation in cancer research in June 2015. One of the components of this cooperation was the establishment of a Joint Steering Committee (JSC) comprising of representatives from both governments. The first JSC meeting since the signing of the MoU was held in New Delhi on March 2, 2016. In this meeting attended by colleagues at the NCI and Fogarty as well as colleagues from the government of India, a range of topics for collaboration were discussed. These include the development of cancer research program at the new National Cancer Institute in India; collaboration in cancer screening and screening implementation; tobacco control research; collaboration on traditional medicine and cancer as well as capacity building in cancer research.

NIH Participants: NCI, FIC

Follow Up on The Workshop on Broad Consent
In 2013, the NIH Clinical Center (CC) Department of Bioethics convened a group of subject-matter leaders with a diversity of published perspectives and professional backgrounds to consider the ethics of broad consent for collection of biospecimens for future research, what broad consent should entail, and how it compares to other approaches. The goals of the workshop were to: 1) consider the ethical justifications for broad consent and alternative approaches; 2) develop an approach that could be adopted across diverse sites and studies; and 3) identify areas of consensus and disagreement, as well as ideas for future research. The focus was specifically on informed consent at the time of collection of biospecimens that will be used in future research, and not on research with existing samples, community consent, incidental findings, or other important and related issues.

NIH Participants: CC, NCI

Functional Role of Microbiome in Obesity
Obesity is a multifactorial condition, affected by altered energy balance resulting in increased adiposity. It has been shown to be highly influenced by genetics and lifestyle factors and, more recently, by environmental factors such as gut microbiota.  Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiome composition can predict body composition (lean and obese) with greater accuracy than genetic composition, and the microbiome plays an important role in the outcomes associated with weight loss interventions. However, the functional relevance of microbial dysbiosis to the pathophysiology of obesity, or the exact nature of microbial changes associated with weight loss interventions and their relevance to obesity reduction, needs to be clearly established. Finally, the potential of microbiome-targeted therapies for obesity treatment still needs to be explored. A workshop was organized to deliberate the current evidence on the functional association between the microbiome and energy balance, to further explore microbial-targeted strategies for treating obesity, and to identify the research gaps and opportunities in the field. Toward this end, the workshop engaged microbiome and obesity experts in an interactive discussion. Invited experts developed a set of relevant questions and research ideas for each topic that served as guidance for the discussions that followed each brief presentation. Proceedings of the workshop were planned to be published in a scientific journal.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NCI, NHLBI, ODS

Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/news/events-calendar/Pages/frmo2015.aspx#tab-event-details

Global mhealth Research Training Institute
The one-time, short-term, scenario-based training promoted multidisciplinary research, implementation science and novel research methodologies to a cohort of researchers from diverse fields who are helping to lay the groundwork for future mHealth research projects and begin to build the evidence base for impactful technologies.

NIH Participants: FIC, NCI, NHLBI, NIBIB, NIDCD, NIMH, NINR, OBSSR

Website: https://www.fic.nih.gov/About/Staff/Policy-Planning-Evaluation/Pages/global-mhealth-research-training.aspx

Health Systems Research
Health care systems are playing an increasingly prominent role in biomedical research. Increased adoption of health information technologies as well as imaging and genomics technologies are not only changing how care is delivered, but also providing opportunities for developing personalized medicine approaches to disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. These changes provide the potential to conduct research studies in real-world settings, on large numbers of participants, and enable studies that could not be addressed previously. This workshop aims to identify key opportunities and strategies that will enable the NIH and health care systems to advance our mutual research priorities and to ultimately benefit the health of women, children, and people with disabilities. The workshop will include leaders from health care systems, academic investigators, as well as government and policy representatives.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NCATS , NCCIH, NCI, NEI, NHGRI, NHLBI, NIA, NIAID, NIEHS, NIMH, NINDS, NLM
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA, AHRQ, HRSA
Other Participants: VA

Human Genome Variation Meeting
The purpose of this meeting was to bring together human geneticists from around the world to explore and share the latest in genetic technology, cancer genetics, population genetics, and genomic medicine.

NIH Participants: NCI, NHGRI

Website: http://hgvmeeting.org/

Human Placenta Project
The placenta is the least understood human organ and arguably one of the more important organs in the body, not only for the health of a woman and her fetus during pregnancy but also for the lifelong health of both. To address this lack of knowledge, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) believes a concerted effort, the Human Placenta Project, would make substantial inroads.  The goals of this meeting are to bring together a group of broad thinkers that includes technical subject matter experts, placental biologists, and clinicians to: (1) Identify scientific processes that with noninvasive monitoring will allow understanding of placental development and function; (2) Identify new and emerging technologies and imaging methods to achieve HPP goals; (3) Develop partnerships between subject matter and technology experts; and (4) Leverage this breadth of expertise to inform the broader project roadmap and prioritize next steps.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NCI, NHGRI, NHLBI, NIAID, NIBIB, NIDA, NIGMS, NINR

International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut

Betel quid and Areca Nut (BQ/AN) use is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region, is a risk factor for oral and esophageal cancers, and has shown effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal and metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. Research is needed to understand effective prevention and control of betel quid, screening and treatment for related cancers, policy and economic impacts, cessation, and basic biology. 

The International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia April 27-28, 2016. The conference aimed to gather regional experts in betel quid and areca nut and gain a greater understanding of the impact of use of BQ/AN, both with and without tobacco. The main objectives were to: 
• Identify research priorities and unanswered questions regarding the use of BQ/AN and cancer;
• Identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and control;
• Build a network of betel quid researchers and stimulate new research in the field; and
• Strengthen capacity among researchers in LMICs.

Previous efforts in tobacco control can inform current interventions in prevention and policy to address the burden of BQ/AN. Some countries, such as India and Taiwan, have implemented policies and national oral cancer screening campaigns that serve as best practices. To reduce the burden of betel quid-related oral cancers, future research and collaboration are needed to advance understanding of basic biology, mechanisms, and epidemiology of betel quid and areca nut use, and create evidence-based screening, diagnosis, prevention and cessation programs for BQ/AN users.

NIH Participants: NCI, NIDCR

Kidney Precision Medicine Meeting
Despite many academic and industry efforts to treat acute and chronic kidney disease, therapies remain limited. A conference held on May 23-25, 2016 aimed to bring together those interested in the treatment of acute and chronic kidney disease, including basic, clinical, and translational scientists; health care professionals; industry and government representatives; and patients.  The goals of this meeting were to: 1) recognize the heterogeneity of acute and chronic kidney disease and the importance in differentiating such heterogeneity so that precise treatments can be developed and provided to individual patients; 2) determine the quantity and usability of currently available kidney tissues obtained from patients with acute and chronic kidney disease; 3) discuss the need, challenges, and barriers in obtaining research biopsies from patients with acute and chronic kidney disease, as well as the negative consequences of not obtaining kidney tissues; 4) establish the scientific and clinical quality control/assurance metrics and training needed for setting up a network to obtain kidney research biopsies; and 5) discuss the phasing and priorities needed to move the field forward.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, CC, NCI, NHLBI, NIAMS

Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/news/events-calendar/Pages/kidneyprecision2016.aspx

Language and Literacy Development in Early Dual Language Learners
About one of every five people ages 5 years and older in the United States speaks a language other than English in the home. Children who are learning English in addition to a language spoken at home are known as dual language learners (DLLs). Increasing understanding of typical and atypical language and literacy development in DLLs is critical for improving reading skills and academic success in this population, and for differentiating language impairment from typical language variation. Little is known, however, about how best to distinguish language variation from impairment or how to promote literacy and learning in DLLs.

NIH Participants: NIDCD, NICHD

Website: https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/workshops/language-and-literacy-development-in-early-dual-language-learners/2016/summary

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Consensus Study on Accessible and Affordable Hearing Health Care for Adults
The Institute of Medicine established an ad hoc committee that addresses how to improve accessibility to and affordability of hearing health care (HHC) for adults, with a focus on nonsurgical devices and services. The Institute of Medicine considered HHC from the health care and population health perspective, including the regulatory environment, access, and affordability.

NIH Participants: NIDCD, NIA
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA, CDC
Other Participants: VA, DOD, HIA

Website: http://nationalacademies.org/hmd/activities/healthservices/hearinghealthcareforadults.aspx?_ga=1.230528149.829962212.1484678149

NCI-NIBIB Point of Care Technologies for Cancer Conference
The conference goal is to promote and facilitate new scientific collaborations, interactions, and sharing of knowledge among cancer health care providers, researchers and bioengineers, and to encourage new research programs that increase collaborations among them. Bioengineers have the opportunity to learn about important topics in cancer research, identify where technologies are needed and gain insights on which technologies may apply. Cancer care givers and scientists have the opportunity to learn about emerging technologies that could be adapted to faster, lower cost, more effective cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment. Closer interactions between these groups may advance science by developing information, resources and opportunities of mutual interest, promote cross-discipline interactions, and expand interests and action into new areas that will enhance translation of new technologies into useful clinical applications. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) collaborated on this event.

NIH Participants: NCI, NIBIB

Website: http://ncifrederick.cancer.gov/events/PointOfCare/gen_info.asp

NHGRI Short Course- Nurse, Nurse Practioner, Physician Assistant, and Educators Track
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) offers a three-day intensive course to teach practitioners and their educators about genomic medicine.

NIH Participants: NHGRI, NCI, NHGRI

Website: https://www.genome.gov/27564236/

NHLBI Workshop on Implementation Science in Critical Care
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a workshop (April 6-7, 2016) to discuss opportunities and needs for implementation science research in critical care. Data show that evidence-based practices in critical care known to improve patient outcomes often are not implemented in clinical practice. Implementation science is a growing field that can enhance the translation of evidence into practice. The goal of this workshop was to examine gaps and opportunities for implementation science research in critical care.

NIH Participants: NHLBI, CSR, NICHD, NIGMS

Website: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/research/reports/nhlbi-workshop-implementation-science-critical-care

NIH Digital Summit
NIH hosted a summit to explore how digital is being used by government agencies, clinicians, scientists, patients, and the public to communicate information on health and science.

NIH Participants: NCCIH, All NIH ICs

Website: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-digital-summit-2015

NIH Disaster Interest Group
This partnership among NIH Institutes and Centers aims to share timely information, enhance relationships and processes, improve opportunities for collaborations, and serve as a discussion platform for actions.

NIH Participants: NLM, NIAID, NICHD, NINDS, NLM

NIH Disaster Research Response Program
In response to recent disasters and the research conducted in their wake, NIH has committed to fund the NIH Disaster Research Response Program. This pilot program, developed by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in collaboration with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), aims to create a disaster research system consisting of coordinated environmental health disaster research data collection tools and a network of trained research responders

NIH Participants: NLM, NIEHS, NLM

Website: https://dr2.nlm.nih.gov

Opioid Use in Pregnancy and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
Opioid abuse in pregnancy and neonatal abstinence syndrome constitute major public health issues in the United States. Methadone maintenance treatment during pregnancy is associated with optimized obstetric care, decreased illicit drug use, and improved fetal outcomes. However, methadone treatment also has been related to the increased incidence of NAS. Research on the pharmacokinetics of methadone during pregnancy has led to the administration of higher methadone doses than were used 20 years ago. However, it is unclear if these increases in maternal methadone dose have further increased the incidence of NAS. Buprenorphine, has been found to be equally safe and efficacious and has become an effective alternative to methadone for opioid dependency during pregnancy. Multiple studies demonstrated that buprenorphine maintenance treatment in pregnancy is either comparable or superior to methadone treatment with regard to NAS; however, these studies were observational, retrospective, or small. Neither methadone nor buprenorphine are approved for use in pregnancy. This workshop will be of high impact in addressing critical gaps in research, including: (1) screening for opioid use in pregnancy, (2) identifying complications of pregnancy associated with opioid use, (3) understating the most appropriate treatment of pregnant women with opioid use disorders given risks and benefits, (4) treating and managing infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome; and (5) understanding the long-term effects of prenatal opioid exposure on children and the role of preventive interventions to improve childhood outcomes for this high risk population.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NIDA, NINDS
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA, CDC

Postpartum Depression Initiative/Conference
In fiscal year, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has been working with the National Child and Maternal Health Education Program (NCMHEP) on a Postpartum Depression initiative/conference that is due to launch in fiscal year 2016. The NCMHEP Coordinating Committee is made up of 32 organizations including Department of Health and Human Services agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Minority Health, Office of Women's Health, and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau in the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)). This initiative will include print materials and a social media component. NICHD will also use a video that was produced by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) on postpartum depression. The initiative is focused on raising awareness amongst pregnant women and their families about postpartum depression. NICHD wants them to know that postpartum depression has more than just depression symptoms and it can occur during pregnancy and in the postpartum period through the first year of the child's life. Also that it not uncommon and that there is help and treatment so women do not need to suffer in silence. The initiative has a tentative launch date of January 2016.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NIMH, OD, ORIP, ORWH
HHS OPDIVs Participants: CDC, HRSA
Other Participants: OMH, OWH

Preventing Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV Network Meeting
The NIH held a series of network meetings provided the opportunity for researchers, policymakers, and program implementers to discuss the research and to enhance better understanding of the role of implementation science methodologies in the context of preventing mother to child transmission of HIV.

NIH Participants: FIC, NIAID, NICHD, NIMH, OAR, ORWH
Other Participants: OGAC

Rare Disease Day at NIH
Rare Disease Day takes place worldwide on the last day in February to raise awareness among policymakers and the public about rare diseases and their impact on patients' lives. Each year, the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and the NIH Clinical Center (CC) sponsor Rare Disease Day at NIH as part of this global observance. Rare Disease Day at NIH aims to raise awareness about rare diseases, affected patients, and research collaborations addressing rare disease challenges. Sponsored by the NCATS and the NIH Clinical Center, this free event features presentations, posters and exhibits, an art show, and tours.

NIH Participants: NCATS , CC

Website: https://ncats.nih.gov/rdd

Rehabiliation Medicine Clinical Trials Design
The conference provided a strategic forum with clinicians, researchers, and NIH staff to define clinical needs and technology solutions towards testing of therapies in appropriately staged clinical trials in medical rehabilitation research. The possible designs range from smaller, pilot or feasibility trials through larger practical or real world interventions.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NCI, NHLBI, NIA, NIAMS, NIDA, NIDCD, NINDS, NINR

Website: http://none

Rehabilitation Research: Moving the Field Forward
The meeting is an opportunity to highlight the field, identify gaps and possibilities in rehabilitation research, discuss infrastructure needs, and highlight training and career development opportunities. During the meeting, input was solicited from the audience, including scientists, clinicians, policy makers, professional groups and public advocates, in order to further refine the recommendations and identify potential activities to advance the NIH Rehabilitation Research Plan.

NIH Participants: NICHD, NIBIB, NINDS, NINR
HHS OPDIVs Participants: FDA
Other Participants: ACL

Simulation Research in Gastrointestinal and Urologic Care: Challenges and Opportunities
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) jointly sponsored a workshop that explored research opportunities for further adoption of simulation applications by expert clinicians. Procedural expertise in many fields has been shown to be enhanced by the use of simulation applications. The adoption of simulation as a method to develop new procedures and improve outcomes in gastrointestinal and urologic care has been limited, however. Although a small number of randomized controlled trials have shown the benefits of simulation when used in training programs, data on its value in improving clinical outcomes by specialists are incomplete. Research on the use of simulation applications to develop or assess new therapies, to improve the detection of disease, or to avoid or manage complications, is largely unexplored. The purpose of the workshop was threefold: (1) to explore and expand the basic research on the development and validity of simulation applications to diagnose and treat gastrointestinal and urologic disease; (2) to promote research on the use of simulation both to identify causes of error in detection and treatment and to assess methods to prevent complications and improve safety; and (3) to identify new methods to analyze the validity and usefulness of simulation applications in clinical care. The research gaps and opportunities identified at the workshop were planned to be incorporated into a published summary of the workshop, which would inform future funding initiatives by NIDDK and NIBIB.

NIH Participants: NIDDK, NIBIB

Website: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/news/events-calendar/Pages/simulation-research-2016.aspx

Structural Biology Related to HIV/AIDS Conference (annual)
Since 1987, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) has supported research and center grants to determine the structure of AIDS-related proteins. The focus of NIGMS-supported HIV studies has evolved from determining the structures of AIDS-related proteins and developing structure-based drug design techniques to identifying mechanisms of drug resistance and complexes of host and viral elements essential to the HIV life cycle. The meeting provides the NIGMS Centers for HIV/AIDS-Related Structural Biology, NIGMS-funded Program Projects and other interested investigators an opportunity to share their progress and ideas with the community. The Centers are co-funded with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

NIH Participants: NIGMS, NIAID

Website: https://meetings.nigms.nih.gov/?ID=20674

Third Quadrennial Meeting on Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC) Function
On September 30 - October 2, 2015, the Third Quadrennial Meeting on Orbitofrontal Cortex Function was held in Paris, France. The objective of this three day meeting was to bring together researchers with a deep interest in the role of the OFC in supporting cognition (behavior, learning, and decision-making) across species. This conference addressed the following topics: 1) recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the OFC; 2) the contribution of OFC to reward prediction; 3) the role of OFC in assigning value in decision making; and, 4) the interaction of OFC with other brain regions in guiding decision making.

NIH Participants: NIMH, NIDA

Website: http://ofc2015.isir.upmc.fr/

U.S.-China Symposium on Nanobiology and Nanomedicine
The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with other NIH Institutes and the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, convened a meeting to explore opportunities for collaborations and facilitate discussions among scientists from the United States and China on priority issues of medical nanotechnologies and their potential for implementation into mainstream medicine.

NIH Participants: NCI, NHLBI, NIAID, NIBIB, NIEHS




This page last reviewed on May 10, 2017