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ORIP Strategic Plan

Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) Strategic Plan

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The National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) in December 2011 when the appropriations bill for Fiscal Year 2012 was passed by Congress and signed into law. ORIP provides research infrastructure and related research programs and coordinates NIH’s science education efforts. ORIP is located in the NIH Office of the Director’s (OD) Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives (DPCPSI), which identifies and enhances trans-NIH research in critical areas of emerging scientific opportunities and reports on knowledge gaps that merit further research through its scientific offices. The trans-NIH nature of ORIP activities demands close collaborations between ORIP divisions (DCM, DCI, SEPA), DPCPSI offices, and the entire NIH to optimize support of all disease areas and across the basic, translational, and clinical research continuum.

ORIP’s 2016–2020 Strategic Plan provides the tools needed to forge successful partnerships with NIH ICs, funding agencies, and the scientific community to support the goals of the NIH mission. This 5-year plan presents three thematic areas that were identified during an 18-month planning process. NIH grantees, NIH leadership and colleagues, NIH Council of Councils members, and the general public provided valuable input. The strategic themes define the overall vision, while the outlined strategic goals are ORIP’s focus areas. The objective of ORIP’s Strategic Plan is not only to build on its significant past investment and existing activities, but also to add new ideas and perspectives to emerging research. Many of the outlined areas build on current programs that have benefited from ORIP’s past support. Other areas involve judicious expansion of existing programs and new directions identified as targets for future growth.

The ORIP Strategic Plan research infrastructure high priority thematic areas are:

I.   Developing models of human diseases.
II.  Accelerating research discoveries by providing accessto state-of-the-art instrumentation.
III. Training and diversifying the biomedical workforce.

 

ORIP Theme I

Developing Models of Human Diseases

Scientists use nonhuman models of human diseases when they are trying to learn about basic disease mechanisms and therapies from experiments that could not be conducted in humans. Evolving technologies and tools for genetic modification will allow currently used animal models to be complemented by new models that will be more focused and predictive of the actual human disease. Even with this new precision, no single animal model will ever recapitulate human disease with complete fidelity. This fact is becoming ever more apparent as we learn about the complexity of human physiology and pathology using the same molecular tools that have allowed us to build better animal models. These new tools and technologies enable scientists to probe deeper into the molecular origins of the clinical symptoms (phenotypes) observable in human diseases. To study, understand, and eventually cure complex diseases in humans will require the use of multiple extensively phenotyped models that mimic the different pathogenic events leading to the disease. Using complementary models may provide the highest predictive capacities, but it will also require new and more in-depth knowledge of disease processes in both models and humans. Additionally, functional alignment of models will require new efforts to integrate data and map phenotypes across model species and into humans. Coupled with a careful choice from among different model systems, this approach should lead to an increased level of predictive power, a decrease in new drug attrition rates, and an increase in the efficacy of new treatments.

 

Strategy 1 - Expand and ensure access to animal models.

Spotlight on Progress

ORIP Participates in Rapid Zika Virus Model Development

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first detected in Brazil in 2015 and has since become a global pandemic. The World Health Association declared the ZIKV pandemic a public health emergency in February 2016. Because there is little known to date about the virus, there is an urgent need for animal models to better understand the pathology of transmission and to test therapeutic interventions.

ORIP has a particular interest in developing and characterizing animal models that can be used to study basic aspects of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis and has responded to the global ZIKV pandemic. ORIP has awarded several grants following their notice to participate in the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) “Rapid Assessment of Zika Virus (ZIKV) Complications (PAR-16-106).” This FOA promotes ongoing submission, review, and award of applications that address issues related to this emerging pathogen as a public health crisis. ORIP meets with the other 8 participating Institutes and Centers (NICHD, NIAID, NIDCR, NINDS, NEI, NIBIB, NIMH and NHLBI) to discuss best practices and implementation of continuous submission of applications.

ORIP's disease models program supports the development of new and improved animal models that complement those traditionally used to study human diseases. In addition to the generation of new model systems, it is equally important to ensure that animal models are all readily available for distribution in research studies today, as well as preserved for use by future scientists.

The number and complexity of disease models—naturally occurring, induced, and genetically engineered—are increasing much faster than our ability to effectively access and use the new information to speed life-saving therapies to the clinic. A critical need exists for the creation of innovative knowledge generation and retrieval systems to give translational researchers the ability to analyze the full spectrum of clinically relevant model systems (animal models, cell and organ cultures, tissue and organ chips, and computational methods) and select the most appropriate models for their research. To facilitate the development and ensure the availability of critical animal models, ORIP will:

  • Continually evaluate the utility of and provide sustained support for valued traditional and nontraditional animal models.
  • Evaluate and promote the application of new technologies to improve generation, preservation, and distribution of rodent, nonhuman primate (NHP), aquatic, and other models.
  • Partner with NIH ICs to create information retrieval platforms, knowledge systems, and data repositories to assist scientists in the selection and use of models of human disease.

 

Strategy 2 - Continue to develop and enhance human disease models and research-related resource programs to advance medical research.

Spotlight on Progress

Pilot Centers for Precision Modeling

Recent scientific and technological advances, such as affordable whole genome sequencing and molecular profiling, enable us to study the genetics and pathogenesis of many human diseases. The goal of using this information is to provide patient-precise treatments based on their unique genetic composition and molecular phenotype. Obstacles to this goal are the absence of an effective means to interpret patient genetic/omic data for clinical use in diverse patient populations. Creating animal models to generate reliable preclinical data for human studies is a fundamental step needed to reach the goal.

In response, the ORIP Division of Comparative Medicine initiated the Pilot Centers for Precision Disease Modeling program to provide advanced animal models to the biomedical community for: 1) examining the causal relationships of genetics and omic information to human biology and disease; 2) validating disease-associated genetic variations and biomarkers; 3) reducing drug candidate attrition; and 4) developing new individualized therapies for monogenic and complex disorders. These Centers are creating pipelines for pre-clinical scientific discovery, disease modeling, and development of interventions based on innovative animal models. Eventually these preclinical pipelines may play an integral role in patient diagnostics, care and therapeutic treatment.

Today’s biomedical researchers have a wide variety of model systems from which to choose when studying human biology and disease states. Therapeutic approaches can be tested for effectiveness in animal models prior to their introduction into human clinical trials. The advent of new technologies that permit the construction of a mouse with a human immune system has resulted in opportunities to further develop model systems that are more precise and predictive of human pathologies. To ensure that disease models co-evolve with technologies, knowledge of human biology, and the needs of the research community, ORIP will:

  • Identify opportunities and challenges for animal models to become precise and predictive models of human pathologies.
  • Promote phenotyping and annotation of human disease model systems.

Strategy 3 - Explore ways to improve the reproducibility of research using disease models.

Reproducible research is essential for scientific progress. Preclinical investigations are particularly susceptible to reproducibility issues, as many factors are experimentally manipulated to understand the biological system under study. Examples include experimental design factors, such as environmental (diet, temperature) and biological qualities (genetic background, sex), that can affect the reproducibility of animal- and cell-based disease models. To enhance the reproducibility of biomedical research, ORIP will:

  • Develop research resources to train investigators on protocols that influence reproducibility and validation of models of human diseases.
  • Explore the use of online learning and the Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) programs to promote training in reproducibility.
  • Foster relationships between intramural and extramural groups with expertise in improving the rigor of research using animal models.
  • Make strategic investments into infrastructure tools to enhance the reproducibility of specific disease models.
Spotlight on Progress

Cryopreservation of Drosophila and Aquatic Biomedical Models Workshops

Drosophila and aquatic animal species are widely used in the biomedical research community to study development, model human diseases, and provide opportunities to accelerate the process of drug discovery. Large numbers of Drosophila and aquatic models of human disease are being generated at an unprecedented fast pace due to rapidly evolving technological advancements. This rapid increase in needed animal models is also creating challenges in maintaining these critical resources in reliable, reproducible and cost effective ways, as long-term preservation of such animal models will be key in ensuring efficiency and transparency in biomedical research. To assess the status of germplasm cryopreservation in Drosophila and aquatic models, such as zebrafish, ORIP sponsored two workshops to identify the obstacles, opportunities and priorities that addressed the need for improved methods. 

Currently there are more than 150,000 Drosophila stocks maintained at major resource centers. Unfortunately, there is no easily applied method of long-term storage of Drosophila, and live cultures must be maintained. Thus, it is this burgeoning of stocks that led to the workshop, “Cryopreservation of Drosophila Strains,” to evaluate the potential and practicality of developing efficient preservation methods for long-term storage of Drosophila stocks. The participants, which included Drosophila experts, stock center personnel and cryobiologists from universities, private companies, and government agencies discussed the potential value of long-term stock preservation, protocol standardization, strategies better suited for strain preservation in labs, improvement of existing storage methods, and development of novel approaches.

Zebrafish, medaka, Xiphophorus and Xenopus, among other aquatic species, are increasingly valuable to biomedical researchers as they provide critical clues to the biological mechanisms that underlie human health and disease. The ability to produce transgenic, knockout, and mutant lines of many aquatic species has provided biomedical researchers with many models for the study of human diseases. However, despite the significant cost to generate these lines, reliable and cost effective approaches for long-term preservation are still lacking. Although cryopreservation of sperm is the sole and proven method for the long-term maintenance in many aquatic models, there are no other approaches – other germplasm format (oocyte, embryo, ovarian tissue, testicular tissue, embryonic stem cells) and reproductive engineering technologies – that are available to aquatic model researchers. To address this gap, ORIP sponsored a workshop entitled “Cryopreservation of Aquatic Biomedical Models” in conjunction with the 8th Aquatic Animal Models of Human Disease Conference. Experts in the field of cryopreservation of aquatic models that attended the workshop assessed the status of germplasm cryopreservation in various aquatic models, identified the obstacles, opportunities, and priorities that may address the need for improved methods, and evaluated novel and emerging research and technologies that might lead to the successful preservation of other germplasm format.

Strategy 4 - Support the modernization and improvements of animal research facilities to enhance animal maintenance and care.

Spotlight on Progress

ORIP’s Division of Construction and Instruments manages a program whose goal is to modernize the physical infrastructure of animal research facilities. In fiscal year 2016, ORIP issued the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) PAR14-251 Developing and Improving Institutional Animal Resources. The FOA set the upper limit for an individual award to $500,000, allowing one application per institution. ORIP received 48 competitive applications and awarded 13 grants. These grants funded remodeling of space and equipment purchases. They benefit many areas of science supported by animal research at the grantee institutions and simultaneously foster animal welfare. For example, two separate projects will create specially-designed areas to enable biobehavioral and neuroscience research. Another project will create specially-monitored space to support maintenance of transgenic animals. Similarly, modular interlocking racks enable species-appropriate environment. Funded laminar flow animal transfer stations, biosafety cabinets, and ventilated racks improve biosafety of personnel and bioprotection of animals. These infrastructure improvements will pay-off over many years by providing better environments for rigorous scientific investigations.

Biomedical researchers require high-quality, disease-free animals and specialized animal research facilities. ORIP’s Animal Facility Improvement Program (AFIP) provides funds to institutions to modernize animal research facilities through alterations and renovations and to purchase equipment for animal resource centers. To ensure modernization and improvement of animal research facilities, ORIP will:

  • Continue to support the AFIP in collaboration with NIH ICs and other Federal agencies.
  • Provide support for specialized animal facilities, such as a gnotobiotic facility or surgical suite, to meet the emerging research needs of NIH-supported investigators.
  • Solicit applications for SBIR/STTR to bring new animal care technologies to biomedical research.

 

ORIP Theme II

Accelerating Research Discoveries by Providing Access to State-of-the-Art Instrumentation

The two categories of ORIP’s S10 program, the Shared Instrumentation Grant (SIG) and the High-End Instrumentation (HEI) programs, are unique at the NIH, as they support purchases of commercially available instruments to enhance the research of NIH-funded investigators. Without access to appropriate modern tools and equipment, it is impossible to conduct pioneering research, to bring forward basic science discoveries, or to design the translational implementation of these studies. The S10 program provides funding for expensive shared instruments which otherwise would not be available to many researchers. The program funds a broad spectrum of technologies that are used in all areas of biomedical research, from fundamental scientific investigations in biophysics and biochemistry to implementation of novel medical procedures and treatments. Every instrument awarded by the S10 program is used on a shared basis, so that thousands of investigators in hundreds of research institutions nationwide have benefited over the years. ORIP will maintain the vitality of the S10 program and the essential role it plays in supporting the NIH research community and advancing the forefront of biomedical research.

 

Strategy 1 - Optimize the instrumentation program through forward-looking program management.

Spotlight on Progress

Implement improved metrics to evaluate the S10 program.

From the currently submitted applications, ORIP staff drew information about the status of the instruments awarded to the applicant institutions in the last 5 years; that is, fiscal years (FYs) 2011-2015. ORIP’s analysis covered over 80% of all instruments awarded in that period; these instruments are well maintained and being used. Based on the data provided, more clearly defined instructions for responding to questions on instrument status and hours of use were included in funding announcements for FY 2017.

Modify the S10 program requirements and administration to augment its cost effectiveness and utility for the biomedical research community.

In FY 2016, ORIP introduced an opportunity to apply for Special Use Instruments. These instruments can be used in a clinical setting as long as special budgetary and managerial conditions are met to ensure the priority and predominant protected time for biomedical research. One such award was issued for a system consisting of a 3 Tesla MRI scanner and an X-ray angiography interventional system to support research and clinical uses.

Over the years, the demand for different technologies has changed, both as new tools have become available and as the particular focus of scientific efforts has shifted. It is necessary that the instrumentation program remains responsive to these evolving needs of the community. To ensure that ORIP’s S10 program continues its broad reach and important benefits, ORIP will:

  • Implement improved metrics to evaluate the S10 program.
  • Modify the S10 program requirements and administration to augment its costeffectiveness and utility for the biomedical research community.
  • Update program guidelines to serve the needs of all of the S10 program users (both SIG and HEI).

Strategy 2 - Continue to accelerate research discoveries by providing access to state-of-the-art instrumentation.

ORIP’s S10 program has served the extramural NIH research community well for more than 25 years. Instruments funded by the S10 program enable work conducted by all NIH ICs at hundreds of research institutions nationwide. The importance of the S10 program for advancing basic science discoveries and their translational implementation is well recognized by the biomedical research community. To continue this record of accelerating research discoveries, ORIP will:

  • Provide support for technologies needed by the biomedical research community.
  • Partner with NIH ICs to leverage resources and extend the reach of the S10 program.
Spotlight on Progress

Provide Support for Technologies

In fiscal year (FY) 2016, the S10 Shared/High-End Instrumentation Program funded 107 awards. As in the past, the Program responded to the needs of researchers from across the nation by funding different types of instruments proportionally to requests received and covering a broad range of technologies; including, X-ray detectors, mass and NMR spectrometers, atomic force, light and electron microscopes, calorimeters, sequencers, biomedical imagers, computers and data storage systems. The Program responds to the emerging needs of the researchers as new technologies become available and enter the market; this year the Program awarded a 3D printer, which is used to create specialized nozzles for X-ray free electron laser imaging of molecular assembly structures.

Collectively, instruments awarded in FY 2016 will immediately benefit the research of almost 2000 investigators supported by grants from all NIH Institutes and Centers, several other Federal agencies including NSF, DOD, DOE, NASA, DARPA, over 80 private foundations, and start-up funds for new faculty at academic institutions.

Partner with NIH ICs

As part of an NIH-wide focus, ORIP is interested in best practices for data generation, management and sharing. ORIP, NIGMS, NLM, and BD2K, collaborated to issue the notice (NOT-OD-16-091) requesting information on Data Annotation in Biomedical Core Research Facilities and Related Needs for Community Education and Training. (See the Executive Summary of results).

 

ORIP Theme III

Training and Diversifying the Biomedical Workforce

The most important ingredient in biomedical science is the inquisitive mind of the well-trained scientist. Maintaining this “human infrastructure” requires careful investments, in both time and money, to ensure that the next generation of biomedical researchers reaches its full potential. To continue the advancement of human health, the NIH must attract some of the best minds from the full diversity of each generation into medical research. ORIP will support activities designed to complement other NIH programs, to improve scientific training at all levels, and to advance a diverse research workforce.

 

Strategy 1 - Train veterinary scientists as translational researchers.

Spotlight on Progress

National Veterinary Scholars Symposium

ORIP supports translational research through several comparative medicine programs that relate to the use of animal models in biomedical research. As part of this effort, ORIP continues to make investments in career development that support Postdoctoral Programs (T32), Predoctoral Programs (T32), and Summer Programs for Veterinary Students (T35) in order to attract and train highly motivated veterinary students to promote research interest and skills early in their career. The Merial Veterinary Scholars Program (MVSP) supports a parallel program providing an opportunity for veterinary schools to introduce veterinary students to biomedical research. At the end of the 10-12 weeks MVSP program, participating students present their findings at a symposium. For 10 years, this annual event has been co-sponsored by ORIP and Merial under the title “Merial/NIH National Veterinary Scholar Symposium.” The 17th annual Merial‐NIH Symposium at the Ohio State University (OSU) in Columbus, Ohio was hosted by the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine. Over 585 participants contributed and more than 460 veterinary students from 35 academic institutions were represented, including 26 colleges of veterinary medicine. The symposium theme of “Transdisciplinary Approaches to Health and Wellness” highlighted a series of one‐health research topics including infectious diseases, translational oncology, and regenerative medicine. More than 400 scientific posters were on display in four sessions presenting research findings by both veterinary students and young veterinary investigators, covering a wide range of research topics with impact on the health and well-being of animals and humans.

Veterinary scientists, biomedical scientists with a veterinary degree, can offer a distinct perspective and expertise to translational biomedical research through their comparative understanding of disease models. Veterinary scientists can make unique recommendations regarding the development, refinement, and reproducibility of disease models and optimize laboratory animal maintenance and care. However, because hurdles continue to impede the entry of veterinarians into basic and applied research careers, ORIP will:

  • Identify and address challenges and opportunities for veterinary scientists to acquire the skills needed to participate in biomedical research.
  • Collaborate with NIH ICs to develop programs that capitalize on the specialized expertise of veterinary scientists (e.g., pathology, emerging infectious diseases, and epidemiology).
  • Promote biomedical research collaborations between physicians and veterinary scientists.
  • Train veterinary scientists to lead activities that integrate biomedical findings across model species (e.g., multidisciplinary training programs).
  • Support dual-degree training programs for veterinary scientists.

Strategy 2 - Support workforce diversity through P–12 STEM education.

The NIH is committed to attracting biomedical researchers from a diverse range of cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To recruit individuals from groups underrepresented in biomedical research, ORIP will:

  • Use the Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) program to provide information on career opportunities, educational resources, and training for targeted P–12 students and teachers.
  • Support the development of approaches that introduce children to scientific thinking and problem solving early in their education.
  • Support the development of mobile apps and Serious STEM Game resources for P–12 students to foster scientific thinking and problem solving.

Strategy 3 - Promote rigorous educational evaluations of SEPA grants.

Federally sponsored STEM education programs, at all levels, are increasingly being asked to demonstrate evidence of effectiveness. ORIP will require SEPA grant recipients to conduct increasingly rigorous evaluations of their programs. A description of each project’s evaluation plans will be required in the application and will be considered by the study section when determining an impact score. To encourage grantees to go beyond “traditional” evaluation measures, ORIP will require SEPA grant recipients to:

  • Conduct rigorous assessments that can demonstrate the effectiveness of their projects.
  • Publish the outcomes of their evaluations.

Strategy 4 - Help teachers, mentors, and parents improve student interest in science.

Teachers, mentors, and parents all make important contributions to student interest in science. To facilitate contributions from a diverse group of role models and mentors by providing specific opportunities and support for teachers, college students, and others, ORIP will:

  • Support the placement of students and teachers into research laboratory settings that facilitate better science teaching and learning when they return to the classroom.
  • Support the development of programs that engage graduate students in teaching part time as a means of exploring alternate careers as P–12 educators.
  • Encourage the participation of mentors who are similar in age, gender, and race to the participating students.
  • Develop materials and resources for the SEPA website (http://www.nihsepa.org) that help teachers and parents enhance STEM education.

Learn more about the Mission Statement and Activities.

This page last reviewed on April 4, 2017